A Tense is a form taken by a verb to indicate the time of action. It is a form taken by a verb to indicate the duration of action.
TYPES OF TENSES
PAST TENSE Used to express things that have already happened in past
PRESENT TENSE Used to express things that are happening right now in present
FUTURE TENSE Used to express things that have yet to happen in future
FOUR FORMS OF TENSES
USES OF TENSES
Uses of Simple Past Tense
a. TO EXPRESS FINISHED ACTION
We saw a movie yesterday. We traveled Australia last year.
John played very well today.
Julie finished to write a story book.
My father died in 2015.
b. TO EXPRESS PAST DURATION We lived in Jerusalem for two weeks. Smith played football all day. I studied French for two years. Last year, my daughter joined IT Company. They talked on phone for one hour.
c. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES We didn’t study grammar yesterday.
You didn’t respect your teacher.
My mother didn’t go to Paris.
They did not invite me for the ceremony.
You did not watch a movie.
d. IN QUESTIONS Did they go to London? Did you wash the car yesterday? Did Smith study English grammar? Did teacher teach with the help of laptop? Did Sangita manage the situation skillfully?
Uses of Continuous Past Tense [sub+was/were+main verb(ing)]
a. TO EXPRESS ONGOING PAST ACTION My brother was helping me to complete the homework. It was raining yesterday evening. We were playing basketball on our school ground. The students were asking questions to teacher. I was singing a song in birthday party.
b. TO EXPRESS INTERRUPTED PAST ACTIONS I was praying God when my friend called. We were enjoying the picnic, it started to rain heavily. The teacher stopped me when I was giving the answer. While I was attending online lecture, my mobile turned off. The players were practicing, suddenly the rain started.
c. TO EXPRESS PARALLEL ACTIONS I was watching TV while my mother was cooking. She was explaining the point and we were writing them. We were taking a dinner, also discussing on COVID 19. George was driving a car, talking on mobile loudly too. The meeting was going on, while some guys were sleeping.
d. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES I was not attending the lecture regularly.
They were not playing in summer vacation.
You were not talking with your friend.
The teacher was not explaining the point.
The wind was not blowing when we reached there.
e. IN QUESTIONS Were we talking loudly yesterday? Was he attending Physics lecture? Were the animals gazing on green meadow? Where were the guests sleeping? What was your English teacher telling?
Uses of Perfect Past Tense [sub+had+main verb(past participle)]
a. TO EXPRESS ONE EVENT HAPPENED BEFORE ANOTHER Jacob had gone out when I arrived in the shop.
I had saved my data before the computer turned off .
Harry had reached home before the rain started.
I could not pay the bill because I had lost my purse.
b. TO EXPRESS THE ACTION STARTED AND FINISHED IN PAST Emily had gone to deposit money in bank.
Sangita had planted rose-plants given by her husband. All students had gathered on the ground. They had taken a right decision.
c. TO EXPRESS THE USE OF ‘JUST’ The train had just left when we arrived at station.
He had just reached home before he heard the bad news.
The teacher had just finished the topic before the bell rang.
I stopped the car when the engine had just locked.
d. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES She had not submitted valid documents.
All students had not participated in competition.
Noah had not sung her favourite song.
I hadn’t faced any difficulty in final exam.
e. IN QUESTIONS Had your brother applied for that post?
Had they reached the airport in time?
Had Henry told an interesting story?
Hadn’t they taken your guidance last year?
Uses of Perfect Continuous Past Tense [sub+had been+main verb(ing)]
a. TO EXPRESS THE ACTION STARTED IN PAST, REMAINED CONTINUE IN PAST AND FINISHED IN PAST I had been going to college. He had been making a box with the help of his sister. All players had been playing with confidence. William had been counting the coins.
b. TO EXPRESS PARTICULAR DURATION IN PAST He had been studying there for five years.
Yogesh had been standing in queue for whole day.
Ahmed had been waiting for three hours.
The patient had been facing backache since morning.
c. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES
Alvin had not been taking the advice of his father.
It had not been snowing since morning.
The teacher had not been talking unnecessarily.
Rehman had not been playing rugby daily.
d. IN QUESTIONS Had she been trying to save the dog?
Had the gardener been watering the plants regularly?
Had the doctor been practicing for ten years?
Had the birds been singing at night?
Uses of Simple Present Tense [sub+main verb/main verb(s,-s)]
a. TO EXPRESS HABITS AND ROUTINES Charles goes to gym every morning. I drink coffee every morning. Julie gets up early in the morning. They watch football matches regularly. Students often visit ‘Global English Creativity’ website.
b. TO EXPRESS GENERAL/UNIVERSAL TRUTHS The earth moves around the sun. Water boils at 100 degrees C. A magnet attracts iron. Plants need soil and water to live. Sun rises in the East and sets in the West.
c. TO EXPRESS FUTURE ACTIONS I go to Jerusalem next year with my wife. My friend arrives Paris on next Wednesday. The restaurants open at 8.00 tonight. The plane lands in ten minutes. Our final exam starts from day after tomorrow.
d. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES They do not know my phone number.
Javed doesn’t like to study Chemistry.
Many teachers don’t use laptop while teaching.
Edwin does not use dictionary while studying.
e. IN QUESTIONS Do you know the writer of the novel?
Don’t they live in Tokyo now?
Does Miller speak Spanish well?
Doesn’t he play a semi-final today?
Uses of Continuous Present Tense [sub+am/is/are+main verb(ing)]
a. TO EXPRESS ONGOING ACTION All are singing a patriotic song together. I’m helping the victims of KOVID-19. Smith is writing a letter to his friend. You are learning English grammar now. It is raining heavily outside.
b. TO EXPRESS FUTURE PLAN I am going to teach the lesson tomorrow. The couple is visiting the holy places next year.
The guests are arriving at 9 o’clock.
They are launching a new car soon.
The minister is announcing the decision tomorrow.
c. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES Lawson is not studying in this school. Girls are not playing badminton. I am not showing my dance performance today. It is not happening as we wish. Visitors are avoiding to enter the cave.
d. IN QUESTIONS Am I explaining the topic properly?
Aren’t they studying in the reading hall?
Isn’t Ralph arriving today?
Where is your father working?
How many students are attending online lecture?
Uses of Perfect Present Tense [sub+have/has+main verb(past participle)]
a. TO EXPRESS RECENTLY FINISHED ACTION They have played football on school ground.
She has traveled some European countries.
Ralph has learned how to read.
All students have participated in the competition.
We have taken a lunch in restaurant.
b. TO EXPRESS THE ACTION STARTED IN PAST AND CONTINUE IN PRESENT Robert has lived in Canada for ten years. She has worked in the office since 2001. I have lived in the UK since 1989. We have played the guitar for 20 years.
c. TO EXPRESS REPEATED ACTION BETWEEN PAST AND PRESENT People have seen the movie ‘Jurassic Park’ many times. We have gone to the beach many times.
d. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES The officer has not granted the permission to visit US. They haven’t finished the homework yet. George has not removed the data from his PC. I haven’t taken a risk to drive in storm.
e. IN QUESTIONS Has she worked as salesperson before? Where have I left my mobile? Have you visited ‘Global English Creativity’ website? Hasn’t you started to write a blog yet?
Uses of Perfect Continuous Present Tense [sub+have/has been+main verb(ing)]
a. TO EXPRESS THE ACTION STARTED IN PAST, CONTINUE IN PRESENT AND MAY CONTINUE IN FUTURE Emily has been studying in the college.
We have been playing on the ground.
All students have been waiting for the teacher.
I have been singing many classical songs.
b. TO EXPRESS DURATION FROM PAST TO PRESENT He has been living in Washington for twenty-two years.
My father has been working in US Army for ten years.
Farmers have been working in the farm since morning.
I have been visiting Dubai since 2010.
c. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES You have not been doing your work sincerely.
Sophia has not been participating in drawing competition.
I have not been teaching English for five years.
The dog has not been barking at the owner.
d. IN QUESTIONS Have you been trying to solve the problem?
Hasn’t he been watching a movie?
What have you been writing since yesterday?
Where has he been working in the city?
Uses of Simple Future Tense [sub+shall/will+main verb]
a. TO EXPRESS FUTURE ACTIONS
I shall go to Yorkshire next week. The teacher will teach English Tenses tomorrow. They will come to meet me on Wednesday. The minister will declare Annual Budget soon.
b. TO PREDICT FUTURE EVENTS It will rain heavily tomorrow.
Brazil will surely win the football final.
The train will arrive late for two hours.
The PM will talk on current pandemic crisis.
c. TO EXPRESS WILLINGNESS Tony will help his friend to write a blog on internet.
Mrunal will give a public speech on Monday.
My mother will deposit $50 in Relief Fund. All teachers will participate in blood-donation camp.
d. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES They will not listen the songs on radio.
I won’t leave my sit until I get written order.
Rosie will not help you in this situation.
He will not waste his time in talking on phone.
e. IN QUESTIONS Shall we go to the cinema tomorrow?
Will you come with me to collect the papers?
Won’t they visit the monuments now?
Will the students attend today’s online meet?
Uses of Continuous Future Tense [sub+shall/will+be+main verb(ing)]
a. TO EXPRESS PROGRESSIVE FUTURE EVENTS She will be singing a beautiful song. They will be waiting at the bus stop. I’ll be celebrating my birthday tomorrow evening. The teacher will be conducting a grammar test.
b. TO EXPRESS PLANNED FUTURE ACTION We shall be staying in Jerusalem for two weeks.
They will be coming together in December.
Imran will be presenting a slide show about Animals.
At 6 o’clock, we will be practicing a drama.
c. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES You will not be carrying cellphone with you.
Villagers won’t be staying there for a long time.
The college will not be conducting exams in this situation.
They won’t be reading my messages anymore.
d. IN QUESTIONS Will he be studying in our college library?
Will they be talking with the experts this afternoon?
What songs Stanley will be singing in concert?
Where will they be staying together?
Uses of Perfect Future Tense [sub+shall/will+have+main verb(past participle)]
a. TO EXPRESS COMPLETED FUTURE ACTIONS I shall have gone to Paris with my classmates. The players will have won the match. They will have reached the airport by 11 o’clock. Dexter will have sent an email before you reach. It will have stopped raining.
b. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES We shall not have booked the railway tickets. They will not have distributed the papers. Arthur won’t have shifted his luggage there. I shall not have painted the house. All students will not have submitted journals tomorrow.
c. IN QUESTIONS Shall we have completed the online course successfully? Will they have not written the poems by then? Won’t they have reserved all AC coaches? Will the players have won the World Cup Final? What will the teachers have planned for next year?
Uses of Perfect Continuous Future Tense [sub+shall/will+have been+main verb(ing)]
a. TO EXPRESS THE ACTION WHICH WILL START IN FUTURE AND CONTINUE IN FUTURE I shall have been reading a novel. The family will have been living in Sydney. They will have been living in France for ten years. Our family will have been travelling all day. My father will have been driving our new car.
b. IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES He will not have been watching TV for seven hours. Smith won’t have been studying much to pass the exam. Julie will not have been sleeping for five hours. I shall not have been staying there until you wish. The workers will not have been continuing the work.
c. IN QUESTIONS How long will you have been studying Chemistry? Will the English teacher have been teaching since morning? Will they have been travelling to Africa? Where will she have been studying after graduation? Will your mother have been cooking for the family?